EPSI INC.  -  Electronics Packaging Solutions International Inc.
P.O. Box 1522, Montclair, NJ 07042 USA, tel. & fax: +1 (973)746-3796
Product Descriptive Brochure (Download .pdf file)
APPLICATION NOTES AND ANALYSIS FILES  (available only to licensed-users of the SRS software)



  • Clech, J-P., "A Pseudo-Stress. Pseudo-Strain Methodology to Predict Lead-Free Solder Joint
    Reliability", presented a SMTA International (SMTAI) Conference, Oct. 2013, Dallas, TX.  See presentation (.
    pdf file).  The full paper can be purchased, with the 2013 SMTAI Proceedings, from the SMTA bookstore at:
    http://www.smta.org/knowledge/proceedings.cfm .


  • Saito, T., Tamai, N. (Hirose Electric, Japan), Kikuchi, T. (Hirose Electric, USA), Ramakrishna, G. (Cisco
    Systems), Chu, Q., Sethuraman, S. (Jabil), Shea, C. (Shea Engineering Services) and Clech, J-P. (EPSI Inc.),
    "Long-Term Reliability Assessment Of A New Lead-Free Area Array Connector System", presented at
    SMTA International Conference (SMTAI 2010).  See abstract. The paper can be purchased, with the 2010
    SMTAI Proceedings, from the SMTA bookstore at:  http://www.smta.org/knowledge/proceedings.cfm .


  • Clech, J-P., Henshall, G. and Miremadi, J., "Closed-Form, Strain-Energy Based Acceleration Factors for
    Thermal Cycling of Lead-Free Assemblies", presented at SMTA International Conference (SMTAI 2009), Oct.
    4-8, 2009, San Diego, CA. See abstract and presentation (.pdf file).  Note: paper received BEST OF
    PROCEEDINGS AWARD.  The paper can be purchased, with the 2009 SMTAI Proceedings, from the
    SMTA bookstore at:  http://www.smta.org/store/book_detail.cfm?book_id=358 .  


  • Clech, J-P., "Lead-free Solder Joint Reliability", Chapter 6, in book: Lead Free Soldering, ed. Jasbir Bath
    (Solectron), Springer Publications, Spring 2007.

  • Clech, J-P., "Review And Analysis Of Lead-Free Solder Material Properties", Chapter 2 Lead-Free
    Electronics: iNEMI Projects Lead to Successful Manufacturing. ed.: Bath, J., Handwerker, C., Bradley, E.
    and Parker, R., IEEE Press / Wiley, October 2007.


  • Zhang, R. and Clech, J-P., "Applicability of various Pb-free solder joint acceleration factors", Proceedings (CD-
    ROM), Lead-free Symposium, Surface Mount International Conference, SMTAI '06, September 2006,
    Chicago, IL (presented by Ron Zhang, Sun Microsystems).  See presentation (.pdf file) and paper (.pdf).


  • Clech, J-P.,  "Acceleration factors and thermal cycling test efficiency for lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu assemblies",
    Proceedings, SMTA International Conference, Chicago, IL, Sept. 25-29, 2005, pp. 902-917.  Download
    SMTAI'05 Paper , Presentation (.pdf files).

  • "Reliability evaluation of lead-free SnAgCu PBGA676 components using tin-lead and lead-free SnAgCu solder
    paste", Jasbir Bath, Sundar Sethuraman, Xiang Zhou, Dennis Willie, Kim Hyland, Solectron Corporation; Keith
    Newman, Livia Hu, Dave Love, Heidi Reynolds, Ken Kochi, Sun Microsystems; Diana Chiang, Vicki Chin, Sue
    Teng, Mudasir Ahmed, Cisco Systems; Greg Henshall, Valeska Schroeder, Hewlett Packard, Quang Nguyen,
    Abhay Maheswari, MJ Lee, Xilinx Corporation; Jean-Paul Clech, EPSI Inc., Jeff Cannis, Amkor Technologies,
    John Lau, Agilent Technologies, Chris Gibson, Motorola Inc., Proceedings, SMTA International Conference,
    Chicago, IL, Sept. 25-29, 2005, pp. 891-917.   Paper can be purchased from the SMTA's Publications Dept.

  • Clech, J-P.,  "An Extension of the Omega Method to  Primary and Tertiary Creep of Lead-Free Solders",
    Proceedings, 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC'05, Orlando, FL, May 31-June
    3, 2005, pp. 1261-1271.  Download: ECTC Paper , Presentation  (.pdf files).

  • "Overview of Lead Free SAC Alloys Evaluation and Reliability Test Program", Karl Seelig, AIM Inc ; Bernard
    Tournier, Avantec; Paul Lotosky, Cookson Electronic Assembly Material; John Vivari, EFD Inc; Jim Slattery,
    Indium Corporation; Tony Hilvers, IPC; Greg Munie, Kester Solder; Tippy Wicker, Qualitek International Inc;
    Dongkai Shangguan, Flextronics, Jasbir Bath, Solectron; George Wenger, Andrew Corporation; Jean-Paul
    Clech, EPSI; Dean May, NavSea Crane, Proceedings, IPC/Soldertec Global 3rd International Conference on
    Lead Free Electronics, June 7-10, 2005, Barcelona, Spain.  Paper / CD-ROM proceedings can be purchased
    through the IPC's Publication Dept.

  • Clech, J-P., "An obstacle-controlled creep model for Sn-Pb and Sn-based lead-free solders", Proceedings,
    SMTA International Conference, Chicago, IL, September 26-28, 2004.  Download SMTAI'04 paper ,
    Presentation .

  • Clech, J-P., "Comparative analysis of creep data for Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints in shear", in Micromaterials and
    Nanomaterials (IZM / MMCB publication, Fraunhofer Institute, Berlin, Germany), Issue 3 (dedicated to the
    memory of Dr. Andreas Schubert), 2004, pp. 144-155.  Download Micromaterials & Nanomaterials 2004
    paper  (2.98 Mbytes, .pdf file).

  • Clech, J-P., "Lead-free and mixed assembly solder joint reliability trends", in Proceedings (CD-ROM), IPC /
    SMEMA Council APEX 2004 Conference, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 23-26, 2004, pp. S28-3-1 through S28-3-14.  
    Download: APEX 2004 Paper  (825 kbytes .pdf file); APEX 2004 Presentation (238 kbytes PowerPoint file).   
    Slides # 8 and # 9 show comparisons of SnPb and lead-free isothermal creep rate data at temperatures from -55
    C to 125C.  Figures shows the cross-over point of SnPb and lead-free creep curves for common lead-free alloys.

  • Clech, J-P., “Review and analysis of lead-free solder material properties”, chapter to appear in IEEE/Wiley book
    on NEMI’s Lead-Free Project, 2004 - study sponsored by US National Institute of Standards and Technology

Clech, J-P., "Solder joint reliability of CSP versus BGA assemblies" (invited paper), Proceedings, System Integration in Micro Electronics, SMT ESS
& Hybrids Conference, Nuremberg, Germany, June 27-29, 2000, pp. 19-28.
 Download Nuremberg 2000 paper (73kB .pdf file) .

NOTE: recommended reading for users of the Solder Reliability Solutions (SRS) software.

  • Paper shows additional validation of the SRS model against accelerated thermal cycling test results for fip-chip, CSP and cavity-
    down BGA assemblies.
  • New flip chip reliability test results are used to test and validate the use if "solder volume correction factors" for small size solder
    joints (as described in SMI'98 paper below).

Clech, J-P., "BGA, Flip-Chip and CSP solder joint reliability" (invited paper), Proceedings, MicroMat2000 Conference, Berlin, Germany, April 17-19,
2000, pp. 153-158.

Reichelt, G. and Clech, J-P., "Life expectancy of solder joints SMD-PCB: comparing test data to an improved life prediction equation", Proceedings,
Nepcon West '99, Anaheim, CA, February 21-25, 1999, Vol. III, pp. 1269-1285.

Clech, J-P., "Flip-chip / CSP assembly reliability and solder volume effects", Proceedings, Surface Mount International Conference, San Jose, CA,
August 25-27, 1998, pp. 315-324.  
Download SMI'98 paper (119kB .pdf file) .

NOTE: recommended reading for users of the Solder Reliability Solutions (SRS) software.

 Paper shows the validation of the SRS model against accelerated thermal cycling test results for flip-chip, microBGA and
ceramic CSP assemblies.

 Includes a new correlation of fatigue data with an empirical "solder volume correction factor" for small size solder joints
(flip-chip, CSP assemblies).  Model calibration factors to account for solder volume effects are defined in page 5 of this paper.  

Clech, J-P., "Flip-chip and chip-scale package reliability modeling", Chip Scale Review, Vol. 2, No. 5, November 1998, pp. 49-54 (out-of-print, no .
pdf file available).

Jean-Paul Clech and Joseph Fjelstad, "Reliability prediction of area-array CSPs", Electronic Packaging and Production, June 1997, pp. 91-96 (out-of-
print, no .pdf file available).

J-P. Clech, "SMT/CSP reliability perspectives", SMTA Newsletter, April 1997, p. 3.
Download SMTA Newsletter Article (8kB .pdf file).

J-P. Clech, "Tools to assess the attachment reliability of modern soldered assemblies (BGA, CSP...)", Proceedings, Nepcon West’97, Anaheim, CA,
February 23-24, 1997, Vol. I, pp. 35-45.  
Download Nepcon West '97 paper (100kB .pdf file) .

NOTE: recommended reading for users of the Solder Reliability Solutions (SRS) software.  Includes description of procedure to estimate
effective CTE of perimeter PBGA package.

J-P.Clech, "Reliability challenges and modeling of miniaturized soldered assemblies" (invited paper), Proceedings, TMS’97, The Minerals, Metals
Materials Society, Symposium on "Design and Reliability of Solders and Solder Interconnections", Orlando, FL., February 9-13, 1997, pp. 367-375.  
Download TMS'97 paper (130kB .pdf file) .

NOTE: recommended reading for users of the Solder Reliability Solutions (SRS) software.  Includes details of underfill flip-chip strength
model in appendix.

J-P. Clech, "Solder Reliability Solutions: a PC-based design-for-reliability tool", Proceedings, Surface Mount International Conference, Sept. 8-12,
1996, San Jose, CA, pp. 136-151. Republished in
Soldering and Surface Mount Technology, Wela Publications, British Isles, Vol. 9, No. 2, July 1997,
pp. 45-54.
Download SMI'96 paper (162kB .pdf file) .

NOTE: recommended reading for users of the Solder Reliability Solutions (SRS) software.

 Paper gives basic description of SRS model, including validation across a database of thirty accelerated tests.

 Defines model terminology and software input, output parameters.

J-P. Clech, "Strength and reliability of flip chip assemblies with underfill", EPSI Inc. Technical Publication, 1996 (available to licensed users of the SRS
upon request).

J-P. Clech, "Solder reliability solutions: from LCCCs to area array assemblies", Proceedings, Nepcon West '96, Anaheim, CA, February 25-29, 1996,
pp. 1665-1680.
 Download Nepcon West '96 paper (103kB .pdf file) .

NOTE: recommended reading for users of the Solder Reliability Solutions (SRS) software.

 Paper gives a general description of the SRS model, including validation of the model against test results for full-array
PBGA assemblies (with substrate thickness and pad size effects).

OTHER PUBLICATIONS (with AT&T Bell Laboratories colleagues):

Ejim, T. I. and Clech, J-P., "Moiré analysis and modeling of area array assemblies", Proceedings, VIII International Congress on Experimental and
Applied Mechanics, Nashville, TN, June 10-12, 1996, pp. 53-54. Full paper in post-conference proceedings, Society for Experimental Mechanics,
Bethel, CT, 1996.

Ejim, T. I., Clech, J-P., Dudderar, T. D., Guo, Y. and Han, B., “Measurement of thermomechanical deformations of plastic ball grid array assemblies
using moiré interferometry”, Proceedings, 1995 SEM Spring Conference and Exhibit, June 12-14, 1995, Grand Rapids, Michigan, pp. 121-125.

Clech, J. P., Noctor, D. M., Manock, Lynott, G. W. and Bader, F. E., “Surface mount failure statistics and failure free time”, Proceedings, 44th ECTC,
Washington, DC, May 1-4, 1994, pp. 487-497.  
Download ECTC'94 paper (186kB .pdf file) .

Note: recommended reading if you are interested in the application of Three-Parameter (3P) Weibull distributions to the statistical analysis of solder
joint failure times.

Clech, J-P., Manock, J. C., Noctor, D. M., Bader, F. E. and Augis, J. A., "A Comprehensive Surface Mount Reliability model: background, validation
and applications", Proceedings Surface Mount International ‘93, San Jose, CA, August 29-September 2, 1993, Vol. I, pp. 363-375.  
Download SMI'93
paper (86kB .pdf file) .  

Noctor, D. and Clech, J-P., “Accelerated testing and predictive modeling of the attachment reliability of alloy 42 and copper leaded TSOPs”,
Proceedings, Nepcon East, Boston, MA, June 14-17, 1993, pp. 193-206.
Copyright EPSI Inc.

Most of our papers and
articles can be
downloaded for free for
personal use only.
Other use, in print,
electronically or
otherwise, including
posting on a public or
internal web site is not
permitted without
authorization given in
writing by EPSI Inc.
Copyright EPSI Inc. 2003-2014.